Install xfreerdp
sudo apt-get install freerdp2-x11

Copy .rdp file to a location on your filesytem.

Test connection via terminal
xfreerdp my-remoteApp.rdp /u:user /p:password

Add alias to /home/user/.bashrc for quick access via terminal
alias mra='xfreerdp /home/user/my-remoteApp.rdp /u:user /p:password'

Optional: Add domain to .rdp file. This was necessary for me because I kept connecting to a wrong domain.
domain:s:abg

For other options in .rdp file see
https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/windows-server/remote/remote-desktop-services/clients/rdp-files

Caution:
The password is stored in .bashrc in cleartext. This could be a security concern.